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Our measurements indicate that the reflectivity (R) in the near-infrared region (700–1,400 nm) is particularly high (Fig.
3b), causing a substantial decrease in the absorption of sunlight. 3b) by 1−R, to yield the amount of light transmitted by the dermis (hence absorbed by the peritoneum or deeper tissues; red curve in Fig.
The organization of iridophores into two superposed layers constitutes an evolutionary novelty for chameleons, which allows some species to combine efficient camouflage with spectacular display, while potentially providing passive thermal protection.
Ever since their description by Aristotle, chameleons have populated myths and legends because of a number of features such as a long projectile tongue, independently movable eyes, zygodactylous feet, a very slow pace and the striking capacity of some species to rapidly shift from one vivid colour to another, but these so-called physiological colour changes are generally mediated by modifications of skin brightness (that is, diffuse and/or specular reflectivity) through dispersion/aggregation of pigment-containing organelles, especially melanosomes, within dermal chromatophores.
In fish, amphibians and reptiles, iridophores containing transparent guanine nanocrystals generate a large variety of structural colours, and modifications of the multilayer reflector geometry has been suggested to generate colour change in a few species.